About Chemistry and Relationships – What’s the Connection?



The term chemistry is usually thrown about as people talk about relationships, so much so that it has gained some negative reputation. Yet it is a fact that there is a strong connection between the subject and relationships. If chemistry works for you in your relationship, things can turn out wonderfully, as it can be a powerful force for good. The chemistry between you can either make or break your relationship. It is very helpful during the beginning of relationships and when facing difficult times.

Understanding how chemistry works

It is important to understand how chemistry works in order to avoid possible confusion. There is often an ebb and flow involved, and you won’t always feel the same chemistry at all times. There are times when you will almost feel like exploding with emotions when you are with your mate. At other times, however, it may take a miracle to give even a hint of a spark. You should understand that the chemistry will change just as the emotions do.

There are a number of things that affect chemistry, examples of which are exhaustion, confusion, worry, anger, and doubt among others. When such factors do not interfere, the chemistry may be so strong that it may seem as if you should not be near a petrol tanker!

Does this mean that you are at the mercy of your chemistry as it changes without your control? No. You can take control of your chemistry to adjust it for good. Here are some things that will help you out.

Take advantage of the physical part

When your chemistry is running low, you can re-ignite it by getting physical. You do not have to do anything great. Just a simple touch can work wonders in bringing back the spark in your relationship. Of course, this means that you will have to get physical in spite of how you feel.

Laugh with, not at

Laughter is great in heightening the chemistry between you and your partner. However, it is not just a matter of laughing. If you laugh at your partner, things will get even colder. You should do things that will make you laugh together. Take part in things you both enjoy. Laughter helps in the release of stress thereby making you more positive. This opens the door for an outflow of chemistry that will enhance your relationship.

Be open

You just won’t be able to reach the great level of chemistry if you are not truly open with your partner. People are generally hesitant when it comes to fully opening their hearts, but you will need to do it in order to have a more intimate relationship. Being mysterious will just work against you in the long run.


Some Human Anatomy And Physiology Facts You Must Know


If you want to become a massage therapist, you must know some of the basics of human anatomy and physiology. This way, you can better provide relief and relaxation through massage.

Facts About The Human Body

Your tongue is like an elephant’s trunk or an octopus’ tentacle. These three has a bundle of muscles called the “muscular hydrostat” that works efficiently without the help of bones.

The hyoid bone is independent of the rest of the skeleton. It sits atop the larynx, which gives an anchor for the muscles on the mouth’s floor or the tongue. This is also known as the lingual bone.

Hair is a weird combination of deal and living. The living follicle will push out the hair that is made up of different kinds of non-living but protective cells. These protective cells are made of keratin. If your hair turns grey, this means that your pigment cells are already dying.

Your toenails grow slowly than your fingernails. The reason for this is the evolutionary correlation between the length of the outer-most bones in your toes and finger-tips (terminal phalanges) and the rate at which your nails grow. Your toenails do not grow as fast as your fingernails because the tip of your toes is shorter. This is also the reason why the nail on your middle finger grows faster than your pinky’s nail.

Humans glow like jellyfish ad fireflies. Such phenomenon is a natural byproduct of the metabolic process. For scientists, they believe that bioluminescence is present in most living creatures. But it was only in 2009 that human bioluminescence was captured on film.

You have a motor protein. Its job is to deliver significant molecules to their necessary cellular destinations. It actually walks along its micro-pathway by using 2 structures at its base known as feet. It is believed that the mode of transportation is somewhat similar to that of the humans.

The most resilient body organ is the liver. It can actually regenerate from just 25% of its tissue mass.


What Is Mitosis?

Complete Introduction to what is mitosis.


In cell biology, mitosis is part of the cell cycle. During the process of mitosis, four main stages happen. The phases are prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Each stage has their specific meaning.

Mitosis is a cell division responsible for asexual reproduction in other words repair, growth, and maintenance of multi-cellular organisms. During mitosis, the nucleus and its contents divide evenly into two daughter nuclei and cytokinesis happens. The process takes place in the cell nuclei of eukaryotic cells only.

Interphase is not really part of mitosis though it does copy its DNA in the preparation of the process. The cell obtains nutrients and metabolizes them, grows, reads its DNA, and conducts other “normal” cell functions. This phase is formally referred as the resting place but does not describe a cell. Rather it lives active and prepares for later cell division.

Prophase is the first stage in mitosis. As the chromosomes coil up, prophase takes responsibility for the chromatin to condense into two rod-shaped structures which are called chromosomes. After the chromatins condense into chromosomes the nucleolus disappears and spindles are formed. Prophase is known as chromatin condensation since there are now two identical copies of each chromosome in the cell because of the genetic material that was replicated in the interphase. The two copies that were made by prophase are called sister chromatids. Centromere which is a DNA element that is on every chromosome keeps the sister chromatids attached.

Metaphase is the second process of cell division. Between prophase and anaphase. Since the nuclear has vanished and the chromosomes have condensed which means that they converted tightly coiled. Now metaphase begins with the centromeres of the chromosomes which arrange themselves on the metaphase plate. Basically, the spindles line up across the equator of the dividing cell. The reason why is because the chromosomes become attached to the spindle fibers.

The third stage is Anaphase after metaphase when replicated chromosomes are divided. Anaphase begins when the duplicated centromeres of the sister chromatids separate and move towards opposite poles of the cell due to the action of the spindle. It depends where the centromere is positioned along the chromosome because a characteristic shape appears. The two shapes that come into view give a V and J shapes. These shapes appear during the chromosome movement. Also, later in anaphase the chromosomes reach their overall maximum condensation. This helps the chromosome separate and the nucleus to reappear.

Telophase is the official final stage of mitosis. Since telophase is after anaphase the effects are reversed. After the chromosomes arrive at the poles of the cell, each pole has a haploid chromosome set although each chromosome is in duplicate form. So, what happens in telophase is that a new nuclear envelope forms, the chromosomes unfold back into chromatin, nucleoli reappears, and the cell continues to elongate. At the end of everything the result is two genetically identical daughter nuclei. But the rest of the cell may continue dividing by cytokinesis to produce two daughter cells.

Isn’t Evolution Just a Theory?



There are some who are in favor of public schools teaching the “controversy” of evolutionary theory. Complaints often come from people, most notably Christians, that evolution is “just” a theory and therefore does not prove anything conclusive. Evolutionary scientists will readily point out that saying “just” a theory is incorrect. They will rightly state that theories are an integral part of the scientific method and one of the foundations of modern science.

The term theory as used in science is actually the result of many observations, empirical testing and the accumulation of vast amounts of data. As such, to say that evolution is “just” a theory only shows ignorance of the scientific method on the part of the commentator. I personally do not think that the theory of evolution is “just” a theory. In fact, I do not think that it is a theory at all.

From a typical dictionary: “Theories are intended to be an accurate, predictive description of the natural world.” Note the word “predictive”. A scientific theory should be able to explain past and current events. It should also be able to predict future events as well. The “theory” of evolution claims great prowess in explaining what has happened in the past but is impotent in predicting what may happen in the future.

The theory of evolution is often compared to gravitational and atomic theory. There is however one big difference between these various theories. Gravitational and atomic theory are both explanatory and predictive. The theory of evolution cannot predict anything.

Atomic theory explains the spectrum of individual atoms, the bond strength between different elements and a whole host of other observations. Atomic theory was also used to design the first atomic bomb. When that first bomb went off in the New Mexico desert what happened was not a surprise. Scientists had a pretty good idea of what would take place based on the current atomic theory of the day. No doubt some things were different than expected but all in all atomic theory was used successfully to build the A-bomb.

Gravitational theory explains the motions of the planets, the path of projectiles and even why we fall down. Gravitational theory was also used to put a man on the moon in 1969. When Apollo 11 left the ground the scientists that designed the rocket didn’t just push a button and hope for the best. They knew how much fuel was needed, how fast the craft had to go and where the ship should land. They also knew exactly what was needed to get the astronauts back home alive. All of this was based on the predictive power of gravitational theory.

Evolutionary theory on the other hand is like taking a car ride and spending the whole time looking out the back window. You see where you’ve been but you have no idea of where you are going. You can never anticipate what will happen next because everything you see has already happened. Evolutionary theory attempts to explain past events based on circumstantial evidence. But it is powerless to predict any future events.

A classic example of this inability to predict future events is antibiotic resistance. Antibiotics were first developed in the 1940’s. They proved to be so effective that they became known as miracle drugs. The Surgeon General of the United States even went so far as to predict that all infectious diseases would “soon be a thing of the past”. And yet in just a few years doctors were stunned to find that bacteria were no longer as susceptible to antibiotics as they were at first. Some bacteria had become resistant to these new “miracle” drugs. This antibiotic resistance is often used as evidence of evolutionary theory. And yet evolutionary theory could not predict antibiotic resistance beforehand so that it could have possibly been avoided.

Evolution was claimed to be the cause of antibiotic resistance only after this resistance had already occurred. Darwin published his theory of evolution in 1859. Antibiotic resistance was first discovered in the 1960’s. This means that the theory of evolution had been around for more than 100 years. So where was evolutionary theory when we needed it most? It was too busy trying to explain what happened to the Trilobites more than 400 million years ago.

Evolutionary theory attempts to explain the past but it has absolutely no bearing on the future. Therefore evolutionary theory is really no theory at all. It is in fact just an idea (one of many) that is used to explain past events. Calling it a theory gives this idea more stature than it deserves.

This Post is written by : Jeff Van Fleet

Best Family Beach Vacations

The best beaches can be found along the Atlantic and Pacific Coast. Here are a few ideas you may wish to consider for your next family beach vacation.

Florida.  From Ft. Lauderdale to Miami Beach, Florida is a prime resort area for family vacations.  With perfect weather and miles and miles of beaches, this area is affordable, diverse, and has a wide variety of water-sports, restaurants, and a myriad of activities for children. Cocoa Beach is only an hour away from the Kennedy Space Center and Disney World.  In addition, Disney’s Vero Beach Resort is considered one of the best in Florida.

Myrtle Beach.  Among the many favourite activities for children include: Ripley’s Aquarium, Le Grande Cirque, a show quite famous for its acrobatics and other circus performers; and Myrtle Waves Water Park.  For older children, a definite must-see is the NASCAR Speedpark.  

With a myriad of dining options, shopping, and other historic sites; Myrtle Beach has been named the number one choice for beach family vacations in the U.S.

Hamptons.  One of the most affordable vacations for beach-loving families is East Hampton, New York.  The best place to stay is at the East Hampton House.  The rooms are available in one and two bedroom units that contain fully-equipped kitchens and/or kitchenettes.  Moreover, you have guest privileges at the nearby beach.  

Although this vacation spot does not offer food, it does have an indoor gym and offers morning coffee there as well.  But, across the street is a deli that has an array of items on their breakfast menu and is very affordable.  In addition, there is a Chinese restaurant across the street as well as a take-out barbeque, and deli.  

The grounds are impeccable and there is a very large pool (one for the kiddies, too) where you can lounge in the sun.  A tennis court is also on the premises.  Every room has its own balcony with lounge chairs and a table.  

If you live in the New York area, it is a 90-minute trip by car.  The East Hampton Inn is centrally located – five minutes from town, restaurants, shopping, and a movie house.  You can even take a short trip to Montauk and visit the historic lighthouse or spend time at the beach there.

Hawaii.  Of course, nothing can compare to the beaches that are in Oahu, Maui, and Kauai.  No matter what island you choose, Hawaii has the most pristine beaches anywhere in the U.S.  Moreover, there are black-sand beaches on the island of Maui as well as a myriad of activities for the entire family.

San Diego.  Shifting to the west Coast, your family might enjoy a stay at the Beach Cottages.  This site offers numerous amenities such as water sports, biking, as well as an amusement park.  For the kids, San Diego Zoo and Sea World are not far from the Beach Cottages.   

Centrally located to restaurants and shopping, Beach Cottages is an affordable vacation spot where the family can enjoy the sun, the surf, and other amenities available.  In fact, you can book a studio that offers a fully equipped kitchen.

Redondo Beach.  Located on Santa Monica Bay, this report haven is perfect for family beach vacations.  Here you can enjoy water sports, fishing bicycling, kayaking, as well as fine restaurants shops located not far from the Santa Monica Pier.  There are many hotels that are situated across the street from the beach or within walking distance.  Each has its own set of amenities that are geared towards families.

Chemistry Help – Tips and Tricks for Students to Do Well



Chemistry teaches students a wealth of information about the matter around us; what it’s composed of and what it’s properties are. This science broadly classifies all matter as either organic or inorganic; both make for interesting study. Students who have started learning the subject will be aware that it involves a lot of observation and experimentation, apart from knowing the theory.

High school chemistry is relatively simple and the curriculum is designed to introduce students to the subject and walk them through the basics. Students are also required to carry out experiments which help them observe the principles in action. In order to study chemistry effectively, students will have to be ready to look at things differently and put their analytical skills to use. Focus on the new information that you will learn and how learning chemistry will benefit you.

There are plenty of ways that students can make learning chemistry easy and less time consuming. On top of the list is studying it everyday. Spend some time reviewing each day’s chemistry lesson and you will be better prepared for the exams. Students will have to read some sections more than once to fully grasp the concepts. Try to read ahead and cover the topics that will be taught in the classes to come. Having a brief idea of what is going to be covered will help students understand it better and develop greater interest.

You might be tempted to take lab sessions lightly, however unless you want to stand there completely blank during your lab exams, make an effort to carry out experiments yourself. Remember that it’s not about doing them once and achieving instant expertise. Everything takes time and patience and this is no different. So try to concentrate on the process itself rather than the result. Students who find it difficult to study chemistry by themselves can opt for chemistry tutoring. This is a great way for students to get regular help and make sure that they spend time studying the subject.

Students who study with an expert chemistry tutor can be sure of getting help whenever they need it. Online tutoring in particular, gives students a lot of flexibility to make their own schedules at convenient times. Chemistry homework help is a useful feature which tutoring services provide. Students can be sure to finish their homework and assignments on time. Hiring a tutor is a great idea for college students who need college chemistry help on a regular basis.


5 Great Ways to Fail Organic Chemistry


Here are several definite ways in which you can waste your time, waste your money, and be certain your dreams of going into a science based field, can be utterly ruined.

Only a small minority of students who take organic chemistry actually intend to become chemists. Many of them are going into fields like biology, medicine, pharmocolgy, or forensic science.

Why be a second rate failure, when following one or more of the following suggestions can make you and your parents shake their heads. You can have them wonder aloud:

“What ever happened to our wonderful child?”

1) Believing Organic Chemistry is the Most Difficult Course Ever Invented:

“Oh, no! You have to be a genius to get this. I’m expected to know things that weren’t even covered in class. How is anyone ever expected to know all of this? I can’t believe it’s really this hard. I may never get into medical school”.

These are the sentiments heard time and time again as they echo through the halls of chemistry departments: disappointed students who take their frustration out on the course. In some cases, even on the professor. If you hear someone saying this, do yourself a favor. Carefully consider the source.

Contrary to what many people report about this, often having gotten less than stellar grades, organic chemistry is certainly not the hardest course offered at an undergraduate level. It is considered to be on a level of difficulty appropriate for a sophomore or junior level at almost every college or university that offers the course.

The fact is, many students do well in organic chemistry. That means you can do well, too. What most students have difficulty with, is that it requires you to think and use principles in a way you may not be used to doing. The vast majority of textbooks have many example problems which can be worked through, and then applied to the homework problem set.

Every college and university has resources like tutoring services, books in the library, practical how-to books in the book store, and the professor herself. Use the resources easily available to you before you conclude it is just too hard.

2) Waiting Until Four or Five Days Before the Test So You Can Memorize the Important Points:

“I can’t possibly memorize hundreds of different reactions. There are just too many arrows going every which way. I also seem to get them wrong! There just isn’t enough time. The professor must be doing this on purpose.”

This reflects two terrible misconceptions about studying an introductory course in organic chemistry.

The first misconception is that the student in question has not put enough time aside to study. Any course, regardless of what it is, should be studied two to three hours per week for every credit hour you sit in lecture. For a three hour course in organic chemistry, which meets for three lectures, one hour a piece, that means a total of six to nine hours a week should be spent studying organic chemistry.

If you are taking four courses with four lectures, that meet for one hour lectures three days a week, that means you spend twelve hours in lecture. If you spend twelve hours in lecture and multiply that by two hours for every hour spent in lecture, you will spend twenty-four hours studying minimum outside of the lecture for each week. That’s a total of thirty-six hours to accommodate all of your academic obligations. If for some reason you feel even more studious, and spend three hours of study per one lecture hour, the total hours in studying and lecture will be forty-eight hours per week.

So if you spend exactly forty hours a week studying, which is exactly same as any work week if you were not in college, your grades should be fairly reasonable–with plenty of time for fun.

The second misconception is that when you study organic chemistry, that this is an exercise in memorizing as much as possible. It is not. So you can ditch those flash cards. What you are being asked to do is recognize a set of rules like geometry in highschool, or how a computer responds to certain types of commands from a programming language.

What you are being asked to learn are these rules of interaction. Especially with organic chemistry, things like the type of solvent, the concentration of the reactants, or the identity of one reactant compared to the other, affect the outcome of the reaction. That if anything is what you must learn to work with. Believe it or not, the method of pushing arrows was invented to make life easier, not harder.

3) Insisting Organic Chemistry is Nothing Like Any Other Course You Have Ever Studied:

“This is so different. I have never seen anything like this before. Nothing really prepared me to try to understand all these things–many of which don’t make sense. I have no idea how I am supposed to figure any of this out. Why don’t they have a course just to prepare you to take organic chemistry?”

These have been the words of many students while they exit a lecture, and even sometimes an exam. There have been students in organic chemistry who swear they have never heard of s- and p-orbitals, have no idea what a Lewis dot structure is, how many bonds common atoms take in a molecule, no previous exposure to chemical thermodynamics, no exposure to reaction rates, or order of a reaction, and no idea about the difference between a weak acid dissociation constant and a strong acid.

The author has heard every one of these claims made.

This is despite the fact that every one of these topics mentioned above, every one of them without exception, factually appeared on first and second semester general chemistry finals.

Even when shown the copies of the finals they have taken from the previous academic year which they took, and received good grades on, many students became angry because they felt it was unfair they were expected to know what they had studied last year.

“They expect me to know everything I have already studied.”

Don’t be one of these students.

Your best defense to avoid this trap is to be able to look at your old notes, and use your general chemistry textbook as a resource you can rely on in the future. If you are really up on these topics above, you will be well ahead of your class mates, and on your way to a good grade.

A separate article for this alone would certainly clear up some of the foggy areas many students have.

4) Fearful of What Sort Devious Tactics the Professor Will Use to Execute His Duty in A Weed Out Course:

“He’s just trying to trick me! He’s supposed to fail a certain number of students with hard questions. She gets a thrill out of how many students she fails. They make it this hard deliberately, just to see if you have what it takes”.

To belabor the obvious, there is no such thing as a “weed out” course. Especially if you are not weeded out.

Most, as in the overwhelming majority of organic chemistry professors sincerely want their students to well. They do not want to fail anyone, and often return to their offices down trodden because they feel disappointed when students have trouble grasping ideas as much as they would like.

I have yet to seen any trick questions written by any chemistry professor, organic or otherwise. The type of questions that get labeled that way are questions which require a different set of assumptions, or a bit more work figuring out.

To put you at ease, most organic chemistry courses have very similar requirements from place to place, and regardless of where you take the course, or from whom you take it, the content is regular enough that you would encounter a very similar course just about anywhere else. This is regulated by the American Chemical Society, not the whims of any particular professor.

Rest assured, there are no professors who teach organic chemistry who are on a mission to fail students. It is actually very much the opposite.

5) Engage in Magical Thinking:

“That’s okay. I know I will pull through this test. After all, I have my lucky eraser”.

This is the type of sentiment an actual student said before he went into the test room just before he took the chemistry part of the MCAT. Can you guess how he did. I bet you can!

There was another case of a mechanical engineering student who slept with his textbook under his pillow, hoping the knowledge would seep into his head.

These are real people, and no actors were hired to play their parts.

All too often, students look at harder problems, convinced it is too hard, and hope it does not appear on the test. Invariably, that is not what happens. In a similar way, many students put off their studying until the last few days before the exam nurturing the delusion that if they study hard enough, stay up all night, memorize complicated pneumonic rhymes, somehow they will pull through.

After all, it worked before.

Understand this.

If you are having a hard time with problems, get help. Don’t bang your head against the wall. Professors have office hours, and so do TA’s. Most colleges also have peer tutoring programs.

Slow and steady wins the race. You will master organic chemistry by making small gains every day on a consistent basis. It has also been scientifically proven that five hours of studying for one hour per day is far better than studying for five hours for one day.

Don’t leave wishful thinking leave you no place to hide.

If you carefully consider these pitfalls that consume far too many organic chemistry students from the start, you will be well ahead of the class. With these barriers removed, you may even decide organic chemistry is great fun.


What Exactly Is DNA Made Up Of?



Have you ever asked yourself the question why my eyes are this color? Or any question as to why we look the way we do. All our features come down to our genetics. Those genetics are family traits that are passed down through our bloodlines. It all comes down to what is considered the fundamental building blocks of life, DNA is the basic substance in the life forms you see around you, yet it is a complicated concept. Your DNA determines the color of your eyes, skin, hair and enable functions such as your sight and hearing. DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid which contains the biological aspects that make everyone individually different. DNA is all contained in one molecule, and there are millions of tightly packaged DNA cells all throughout many life forms making it the building block of the DNA. DNA. We have all heard of DNA for years, but what do you really know about it. What is DNA made of? In this paper, we will talk about this mini miracle called DNA.

Like any good story, we need to start at the beginning. DNA was discovered in 1868 by a Swiss medical student named Johann Friedrich Miescher. Miescher was working with pus from a surgical would, where he was investigating the white blood cells. It was in these white blood cells that he found the instruction booklet for making us who we are. It is important to note that DNA is in every living being. Even though Miescher discovered DNA in 1868, it would be over 80 more years before DNA was considered actual genetic material. After Miescher found DNA, the medical and scientific communities of that era felt that DNA was too simple to be genetic material. They would further discover that DNA is a long complex polymer made from repeating nucleotide.

So, complex and long in fact that it has been recorded that a humans chromosome number one is 85 nanometers long and contains 220 million base pairs. The double helix DNA structure is made from alternating sugar and phosphate bonds. Holding these sugar and phosphate bonds together is hydrogen. Earlier we mentioned that in early DNA discovery it was considered too simple to be actually viable genetic material. This was thought due to the four base materials that are found in all DNA. These are adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine with these four bases attached to the sugar/phosphate they form the complete nucleotide. This is just a brief definition on what single handedly is the three most important letters of existence, DNA.


Exploring Biology: DNA Replication and Structure



In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule. This process occurs in all living organisms and is the basis for biological inheritance. The cell possesses the distinctive property of division, which makes replication of DNA essential. DNA is made up of a double helix of two complementary strands. During replication, these strands are separated. Each strand of the original DNA molecule then serves as a template for the production of its counterpart, a process referred to as semiconservative replication. Cellular proofreading and error-checking mechanisms ensure near perfect fidelity for DNA replication.

In a cell, DNA replication begins at specific locations, or origins of replication, in the genome. Unwinding of DNA at the origin and synthesis of new strands results in replication forks growing bi-directionally from the origin. A number of proteins are associated with the replication fork to help in the initiation and continuation of DNA synthesis. Most prominently, DNA polymerase synthesizes the new strands by adding nucleotides that complement each (template) strand. DNA replication occurs during the S-stage of interphase. DNA replication can also be performed in vitro (artificially, outside a cell). DNA polymerases isolated from cells and artificial DNA primers can be used to initiate DNA synthesis at known sequences in a template DNA molecule. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a common laboratory technique, cyclically applies such artificial synthesis to amplify a specific target DNA fragment from a pool of DNA. DNA usually exists as a double-stranded structure, with both strands coiled together to form the characteristic double-helix. Each single strand of DNA is a chain of four types of nucleotides. Nucleotides in DNA contain a deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate, and a nucleobase.

The four types of nucleotide correspond to the four nucleobases adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine, commonly abbreviated as A,C, G and T. Adenine and guanine are purine bases, while cytosine and thymine are pyrimidines. These nucleotides form phosphodiester bonds, creating the phosphate-deoxyribose backbone of the DNA double helix with the nuclei bases pointing inward (i.e., toward the opposing strand). Nucleotides (bases) are matched between strands through hydrogen bonds to form base pairs. Adenine pairs with thymine (two hydrogen bonds), and guanine pairs with cytosine (stronger: three hydrogen bonds).

DNA strands have a directionality, and the different ends of a single strand are called the “3′ (three-prime) end” and the “5′ (five-prime) end”. By convention, if the base sequence of a single strand of DNA is given, the left end of the sequence is the 5′ end, while the right end of the sequence is the 3′ end. The strands of the double helix are anti-parallel with one being 5′ to 3′, and the opposite strand 3′ to 5′. These terms refer to the carbon atom in deoxyribose to which the next phosphate in the chain attaches. Directionality has consequences in DNA synthesis, because DNA polymerase can synthesize DNA in only one direction by adding nucleotides to the 3′ end of a DNA strand. The pairing of complementary bases in DNA (through hydrogen bonding) means that the information contained within each strand is redundant.

Phosphodiester (intra-strand) bonds are stronger than hydrogen (inter-strand) bonds. This allows the strands to be separated from one another. The nucleotides on a single strand can therefore be used to reconstruct nucleotides on a newly synthesized partner strand. Everything needed to know about DNA structure and its replication.


The Number 1 Trait That Attracts Women (and How to Demonstrate It to Be Attractive to Women)



Here’s a personality trait that many guys try hard to embody, but can’t quite figure it out. And even cause them to come on too strong.

The trait here is none other than the dominant personality.

This is the #1 trait that attracts women.

Yes, while other personality traits can also make you attractive in the eyes of a woman, the dominant personality really makes you stand out. Because when you exhibit this trait around a woman, it communicates to her you’re a better choice than the other guys she meets.

Now, this is not about intimidating people or bossing people around. Or starting a fight to show off to women… it’s different.

Read on to find out how to demonstrate this trait and become attractive to women.

Continue reading “The Number 1 Trait That Attracts Women (and How to Demonstrate It to Be Attractive to Women)”