Some Human Anatomy And Physiology Facts You Must Know


If you want to become a massage therapist, you must know some of the basics of human anatomy and physiology. This way, you can better provide relief and relaxation through massage.

Facts About The Human Body

Your tongue is like an elephant’s trunk or an octopus’ tentacle. These three has a bundle of muscles called the “muscular hydrostat” that works efficiently without the help of bones.

The hyoid bone is independent of the rest of the skeleton. It sits atop the larynx, which gives an anchor for the muscles on the mouth’s floor or the tongue. This is also known as the lingual bone.

Hair is a weird combination of deal and living. The living follicle will push out the hair that is made up of different kinds of non-living but protective cells. These protective cells are made of keratin. If your hair turns grey, this means that your pigment cells are already dying.

Your toenails grow slowly than your fingernails. The reason for this is the evolutionary correlation between the length of the outer-most bones in your toes and finger-tips (terminal phalanges) and the rate at which your nails grow. Your toenails do not grow as fast as your fingernails because the tip of your toes is shorter. This is also the reason why the nail on your middle finger grows faster than your pinky’s nail.

Humans glow like jellyfish ad fireflies. Such phenomenon is a natural byproduct of the metabolic process. For scientists, they believe that bioluminescence is present in most living creatures. But it was only in 2009 that human bioluminescence was captured on film.

You have a motor protein. Its job is to deliver significant molecules to their necessary cellular destinations. It actually walks along its micro-pathway by using 2 structures at its base known as feet. It is believed that the mode of transportation is somewhat similar to that of the humans.

The most resilient body organ is the liver. It can actually regenerate from just 25% of its tissue mass.


What Is Mitosis?

Complete Introduction to what is mitosis.


In cell biology, mitosis is part of the cell cycle. During the process of mitosis, four main stages happen. The phases are prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Each stage has their specific meaning.

Mitosis is a cell division responsible for asexual reproduction in other words repair, growth, and maintenance of multi-cellular organisms. During mitosis, the nucleus and its contents divide evenly into two daughter nuclei and cytokinesis happens. The process takes place in the cell nuclei of eukaryotic cells only.

Interphase is not really part of mitosis though it does copy its DNA in the preparation of the process. The cell obtains nutrients and metabolizes them, grows, reads its DNA, and conducts other “normal” cell functions. This phase is formally referred as the resting place but does not describe a cell. Rather it lives active and prepares for later cell division.

Prophase is the first stage in mitosis. As the chromosomes coil up, prophase takes responsibility for the chromatin to condense into two rod-shaped structures which are called chromosomes. After the chromatins condense into chromosomes the nucleolus disappears and spindles are formed. Prophase is known as chromatin condensation since there are now two identical copies of each chromosome in the cell because of the genetic material that was replicated in the interphase. The two copies that were made by prophase are called sister chromatids. Centromere which is a DNA element that is on every chromosome keeps the sister chromatids attached.

Metaphase is the second process of cell division. Between prophase and anaphase. Since the nuclear has vanished and the chromosomes have condensed which means that they converted tightly coiled. Now metaphase begins with the centromeres of the chromosomes which arrange themselves on the metaphase plate. Basically, the spindles line up across the equator of the dividing cell. The reason why is because the chromosomes become attached to the spindle fibers.

The third stage is Anaphase after metaphase when replicated chromosomes are divided. Anaphase begins when the duplicated centromeres of the sister chromatids separate and move towards opposite poles of the cell due to the action of the spindle. It depends where the centromere is positioned along the chromosome because a characteristic shape appears. The two shapes that come into view give a V and J shapes. These shapes appear during the chromosome movement. Also, later in anaphase the chromosomes reach their overall maximum condensation. This helps the chromosome separate and the nucleus to reappear.

Telophase is the official final stage of mitosis. Since telophase is after anaphase the effects are reversed. After the chromosomes arrive at the poles of the cell, each pole has a haploid chromosome set although each chromosome is in duplicate form. So, what happens in telophase is that a new nuclear envelope forms, the chromosomes unfold back into chromatin, nucleoli reappears, and the cell continues to elongate. At the end of everything the result is two genetically identical daughter nuclei. But the rest of the cell may continue dividing by cytokinesis to produce two daughter cells.

Isn’t Evolution Just a Theory?



There are some who are in favor of public schools teaching the “controversy” of evolutionary theory. Complaints often come from people, most notably Christians, that evolution is “just” a theory and therefore does not prove anything conclusive. Evolutionary scientists will readily point out that saying “just” a theory is incorrect. They will rightly state that theories are an integral part of the scientific method and one of the foundations of modern science.

The term theory as used in science is actually the result of many observations, empirical testing and the accumulation of vast amounts of data. As such, to say that evolution is “just” a theory only shows ignorance of the scientific method on the part of the commentator. I personally do not think that the theory of evolution is “just” a theory. In fact, I do not think that it is a theory at all.

From a typical dictionary: “Theories are intended to be an accurate, predictive description of the natural world.” Note the word “predictive”. A scientific theory should be able to explain past and current events. It should also be able to predict future events as well. The “theory” of evolution claims great prowess in explaining what has happened in the past but is impotent in predicting what may happen in the future.

The theory of evolution is often compared to gravitational and atomic theory. There is however one big difference between these various theories. Gravitational and atomic theory are both explanatory and predictive. The theory of evolution cannot predict anything.

Atomic theory explains the spectrum of individual atoms, the bond strength between different elements and a whole host of other observations. Atomic theory was also used to design the first atomic bomb. When that first bomb went off in the New Mexico desert what happened was not a surprise. Scientists had a pretty good idea of what would take place based on the current atomic theory of the day. No doubt some things were different than expected but all in all atomic theory was used successfully to build the A-bomb.

Gravitational theory explains the motions of the planets, the path of projectiles and even why we fall down. Gravitational theory was also used to put a man on the moon in 1969. When Apollo 11 left the ground the scientists that designed the rocket didn’t just push a button and hope for the best. They knew how much fuel was needed, how fast the craft had to go and where the ship should land. They also knew exactly what was needed to get the astronauts back home alive. All of this was based on the predictive power of gravitational theory.

Evolutionary theory on the other hand is like taking a car ride and spending the whole time looking out the back window. You see where you’ve been but you have no idea of where you are going. You can never anticipate what will happen next because everything you see has already happened. Evolutionary theory attempts to explain past events based on circumstantial evidence. But it is powerless to predict any future events.

A classic example of this inability to predict future events is antibiotic resistance. Antibiotics were first developed in the 1940’s. They proved to be so effective that they became known as miracle drugs. The Surgeon General of the United States even went so far as to predict that all infectious diseases would “soon be a thing of the past”. And yet in just a few years doctors were stunned to find that bacteria were no longer as susceptible to antibiotics as they were at first. Some bacteria had become resistant to these new “miracle” drugs. This antibiotic resistance is often used as evidence of evolutionary theory. And yet evolutionary theory could not predict antibiotic resistance beforehand so that it could have possibly been avoided.

Evolution was claimed to be the cause of antibiotic resistance only after this resistance had already occurred. Darwin published his theory of evolution in 1859. Antibiotic resistance was first discovered in the 1960’s. This means that the theory of evolution had been around for more than 100 years. So where was evolutionary theory when we needed it most? It was too busy trying to explain what happened to the Trilobites more than 400 million years ago.

Evolutionary theory attempts to explain the past but it has absolutely no bearing on the future. Therefore evolutionary theory is really no theory at all. It is in fact just an idea (one of many) that is used to explain past events. Calling it a theory gives this idea more stature than it deserves.

This Post is written by : Jeff Van Fleet

What Exactly Is DNA Made Up Of?



Have you ever asked yourself the question why my eyes are this color? Or any question as to why we look the way we do. All our features come down to our genetics. Those genetics are family traits that are passed down through our bloodlines. It all comes down to what is considered the fundamental building blocks of life, DNA is the basic substance in the life forms you see around you, yet it is a complicated concept. Your DNA determines the color of your eyes, skin, hair and enable functions such as your sight and hearing. DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid which contains the biological aspects that make everyone individually different. DNA is all contained in one molecule, and there are millions of tightly packaged DNA cells all throughout many life forms making it the building block of the DNA. DNA. We have all heard of DNA for years, but what do you really know about it. What is DNA made of? In this paper, we will talk about this mini miracle called DNA.

Like any good story, we need to start at the beginning. DNA was discovered in 1868 by a Swiss medical student named Johann Friedrich Miescher. Miescher was working with pus from a surgical would, where he was investigating the white blood cells. It was in these white blood cells that he found the instruction booklet for making us who we are. It is important to note that DNA is in every living being. Even though Miescher discovered DNA in 1868, it would be over 80 more years before DNA was considered actual genetic material. After Miescher found DNA, the medical and scientific communities of that era felt that DNA was too simple to be genetic material. They would further discover that DNA is a long complex polymer made from repeating nucleotide.

So, complex and long in fact that it has been recorded that a humans chromosome number one is 85 nanometers long and contains 220 million base pairs. The double helix DNA structure is made from alternating sugar and phosphate bonds. Holding these sugar and phosphate bonds together is hydrogen. Earlier we mentioned that in early DNA discovery it was considered too simple to be actually viable genetic material. This was thought due to the four base materials that are found in all DNA. These are adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine with these four bases attached to the sugar/phosphate they form the complete nucleotide. This is just a brief definition on what single handedly is the three most important letters of existence, DNA.


Exploring Biology: DNA Replication and Structure



In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule. This process occurs in all living organisms and is the basis for biological inheritance. The cell possesses the distinctive property of division, which makes replication of DNA essential. DNA is made up of a double helix of two complementary strands. During replication, these strands are separated. Each strand of the original DNA molecule then serves as a template for the production of its counterpart, a process referred to as semiconservative replication. Cellular proofreading and error-checking mechanisms ensure near perfect fidelity for DNA replication.

In a cell, DNA replication begins at specific locations, or origins of replication, in the genome. Unwinding of DNA at the origin and synthesis of new strands results in replication forks growing bi-directionally from the origin. A number of proteins are associated with the replication fork to help in the initiation and continuation of DNA synthesis. Most prominently, DNA polymerase synthesizes the new strands by adding nucleotides that complement each (template) strand. DNA replication occurs during the S-stage of interphase. DNA replication can also be performed in vitro (artificially, outside a cell). DNA polymerases isolated from cells and artificial DNA primers can be used to initiate DNA synthesis at known sequences in a template DNA molecule. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a common laboratory technique, cyclically applies such artificial synthesis to amplify a specific target DNA fragment from a pool of DNA. DNA usually exists as a double-stranded structure, with both strands coiled together to form the characteristic double-helix. Each single strand of DNA is a chain of four types of nucleotides. Nucleotides in DNA contain a deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate, and a nucleobase.

The four types of nucleotide correspond to the four nucleobases adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine, commonly abbreviated as A,C, G and T. Adenine and guanine are purine bases, while cytosine and thymine are pyrimidines. These nucleotides form phosphodiester bonds, creating the phosphate-deoxyribose backbone of the DNA double helix with the nuclei bases pointing inward (i.e., toward the opposing strand). Nucleotides (bases) are matched between strands through hydrogen bonds to form base pairs. Adenine pairs with thymine (two hydrogen bonds), and guanine pairs with cytosine (stronger: three hydrogen bonds).

DNA strands have a directionality, and the different ends of a single strand are called the “3′ (three-prime) end” and the “5′ (five-prime) end”. By convention, if the base sequence of a single strand of DNA is given, the left end of the sequence is the 5′ end, while the right end of the sequence is the 3′ end. The strands of the double helix are anti-parallel with one being 5′ to 3′, and the opposite strand 3′ to 5′. These terms refer to the carbon atom in deoxyribose to which the next phosphate in the chain attaches. Directionality has consequences in DNA synthesis, because DNA polymerase can synthesize DNA in only one direction by adding nucleotides to the 3′ end of a DNA strand. The pairing of complementary bases in DNA (through hydrogen bonding) means that the information contained within each strand is redundant.

Phosphodiester (intra-strand) bonds are stronger than hydrogen (inter-strand) bonds. This allows the strands to be separated from one another. The nucleotides on a single strand can therefore be used to reconstruct nucleotides on a newly synthesized partner strand. Everything needed to know about DNA structure and its replication.